Tuesday, 23 May 2017

5 Essential Oils That Can Help Reset Your Hormones!

Herbs have many amazing healing properties and one of their most fascinating qualities is their potential ability to affect your hormones in a positive way.|
 Five of the herbs that are of special interest to hormonal health and hormone balancing are: thyme, holy basil, clary sage, sandalwood, and myrtle.

What do we mean when we say balancing hormones? Some of the primary hormones at work in your body include:
  • Adrenal hormones: Your adrenal glands produce cortisol, which manages stress and contributes to metabolism
  • Reproductive hormones: Estrogen and progesterone manage menstrual cycles, female fertility, and help balance vaginal pH. Testosterone manages male fertility, bone mass, libido, and red blood cell production. Both men and women actually have all 3 hormones in their bodies, but an unhealthy balance has been linked to a higher risk of cancer.
  • Thyroid hormones: Triiodothyronine and thyroxine are produced by your thyroid and control your metabolism.
  • Sleep hormones: While not as much of a ‘heavy hitter’ as the above hormones, sleep hormones like melatonin, which is produced by the pineal gland, can have a dramatic effect on your health when out of balance. Poor quality sleep can make your entire body much less efficient and more prone to sickness and burnout.
Your endocrine system functions to keep all of your hormones working in a careful balance. When just one is out of balance affects the others, leading to all kinds of nasty symptoms from weight gain to fatigue to pain.

5 Hormone Balancing Herbs

1. Thyme: Preventing Breast Cancer

In an in vitro study, researchers tested the effects of different herb extracts on breast cancer cells. One of the herbs that was able to bind to progesterone — a key female hormone — was thyme. Progesterone is a sex hormone that is involved in the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. Researchers found that thyme also contains a high number of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins and tested this herb to see if it would have negative or positive effects on cell growth regulation in breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, results showed that thyme mimicked the activity of anti-progesterone drugs by blocking the activity of progesterone and inhibiting the growth of the breast cancer cells. (9)***** RENUMBER in numerical order

2. Holy Basil: Lowering Anxiety

Studies report that holy basil has properties that decrease the levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. (3) One study found that holy basil extract helps in lowering anxiety levels. Participants received holy basil for 6 weeks and saw improvement in various stressful aspects of their life such as memory issues, recent sexual problems, exhaustion, and sleep quality. (6)

3. Clary Sage: Healthier Menopause

Clary sage is another herb that can potentially lower cortisol levels. According to a study, the cortisol levels of women in their 50s decreased after they inhaled clary sage oil. Interestingly, hormones that stimulate the thyroid also decreased, but only slightly. (7)
Clary sage may also increase estrogen levels in women who are experiencing menopausal symptoms due to declining levels of estrogen. (5)

4. Sandalwood: Reducing Stress

One study looked at the effects of aromatherapy on women who were undergoing a breast biopsy, which is an exam to determine whether a lump is malignant. Having a breast biopsy can be stressful for some women and participants were asked to try two combinations of essential oils. The study found that the combination of orange and peppermint oil was not as effective as the sandalwood and lavender combination, which had a calming effect on the patients and reduced their anxiety during the exam. (8)
Another study found that cancer patients who suffered from a lack of sleep improved their sleep quality by inhaling different blends of essential oils. Sandalwood was one of the essential oils included in one of the blends. 64% of patients showed at least a slight improvement in their sleep pattern and almost all patients said that they would continue to use the oils to help them sleep. (2)

5. Myrtle: Improving Sleep

Although some cultures use myrtle as a sedative or hypnotic herb, there haven’t been any studies on its effects on humans. However, there have been a few promising studies on rats and mice. Researchers noted that lab animals that received myrtle extract were sleeping more frequently and having a deeper sleep and their muscles were more relaxed. The study concluded that myrtle could have antianxiety properties. (4)
Another study found similar relaxing results in lab animals. Mice that consumed myrtle essential oil experienced prolonged sleeping during which the activity in their brain was slowed down. (1)

The Best Ways to Use Herbs Medicinally

Herbs can be used in a variety of ways. The easiest way to reap their benefits is to put them in your food or in a smoothie, but they are also found in teas, essential oils, and extract forms. Medicinal herbs can also be used in poultices and ointments.
Extracts are concentrated doses of the medicinal herb and can be found in tinctures (liquid form), or in powder form (capsules, or loose powder) when all the water is removed from the herb. Tinctures are best consumed on an empty stomach, about 1-2 mL at a time.
Herb-based essential oils can be used in a variety of ways:
  • Mix with a carrier oil like coconut oil and massage into skin
  • Add a few drops to a hot bath
  • Use a diffuser. Add a few drops to room temperature distilled water and set in a common area of your house
When buying or making herbal teas, make sure your ingredients are certified organic. It’s also better to buy whole leaf teas, rather than teabags, which can sometimes be laced with pesticide residue. Steep the teas to your desired strength and enjoy up to 3 times a day.
Different forms of herbs are suitable for different situations, and some herbs can interact with certain medications, so always speak with a trained practitioner for the appropriate method before you use herbs in any form.
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(1) Birhanie, M. W., Walle, B., & Rebba, K. (2016). Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice. Nature and Science of Sleep, 16(8), 267-275.
(2) Dyer, J., Cleary, L., McNeill, S., Ragsdale-Lowe, M., & Osland, C. (2015). The use of aromasticks to help with sleep problems: A patient experience survey. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 22, 51-58.
(3) Gholap, S. & Kar, A. (2004). Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration. Pharmazie, 59(11), 876-878.
(4) Hajiaghaee, R., Faizi, M., Shahmohammadi, Z., Abdollahnejad, F., Naghdibadi, H., Najafi, F., & Razmi, A. (2016). Hydroalcoholic extract of Myrtus communis can alter anxiety and sleep parameters: a behavioural and EEG sleep pattern study in mice and rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(10), 2141-2148.
(5) Lee, K. B., Cho, E., & Kang, Y. S. (2014). Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil. Phytotherapy Research, 28(11), 1599-605.
(6) Saxena, R. C., Singh, R., Kumar, P., Singh Negi, M. P., Saxena, V. S., Geetharani, P., Allan, J. J., & Venkateshwarlu, K. (2012). Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012(1), 1-7.
(7) Shinohara, K., Doi, H., Kumagai, C., Sawano, E., & Tarumi, W. (2017). Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 37(8), 567-572.
(8) Trambert, R., Kowalski, M. O., Wu, B., Mehta, N., & Friedman, P. (2017). A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.
(9) Zava, D. T., Dollbaum, C. M., Blen, M. (1998). Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 217(3), 369-78.

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Alcohol - Dr Sally - 4 Reasons to Stay Off!

Most of us are aware of the health problems that alcohol can cause. Not only can excessive drinking lead to major problems like liver disease, but there’s growing evidence that even moderate drinking may increase our risk of illnesses such as some cancers. It’s also pretty bad for our waistlines too

Still not convinced? Then take a look at the significant benefits you could reap from cutting back on your drinking, not just for your health – but for your finances, looks, and general wellbeing too.
While it might not seem much at the time, even just drinking a couple of bottles of wine a week can add up to hundreds of pounds spent over the year – or even more, if you’re partial to a pricier tipple! Why not try using the money saved to treat yourself to a spa day, or to put towards a shopping spree?
Many of us watching our weight simply do not realise, or account for, the calories present in alcohol. In fact, the average wine-drinker in England takes in around 2000 kcal per month from alcohol, with as much as 185 kcal in just one large glass. Not to mention the late night munchies or greasy fry-up that so often follows a heavy night of drinking. So while you might at first miss that post-work tipple or weekend drinking session, your waistline certainly won’t – in fact, you might be surprised at the pounds you could lose simply by cutting out or reducing how much alcohol you consume.
Better sleep
A glass of wine can sometimes help us get to sleep, but did you know that over time, that glass of wine could actually cause insomnia? A study by the University of Missouri School of Medicine found using alcohol as a sleeping aid long-term could affect our ability to fall asleep, leading to disrupted sleeping patterns, and a lowered quality of sleep. So swap your usual alcoholic nightcap for a sleep-inducing Camomile Tea, or a relaxing, scented bath, and you could find your sleeping patterns improve and you wake up feeling more rested.
Healthier skin
Drinking alcohol can dehydrate your skin, leaving it feeling dried out and sensitive. Over time, drinking too much can have long-lasting effects on your skin, depriving it of vital vitamins and nutrients, leaving your skin looking dull. Not only this, but many skin conditions, such as rosacea or psoriasis can often be exacerbated through alcohol consumption, with many dermatologists recommending minimising drinking to avoid flare-ups. So cutting back on alcohol could not only help keep any skin conditions at bay, but could actually help to keep your skin hydrated, and looking fresher, and more youthful – win win!
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WORKOUT BY: Leandro Cavalho, Creator of the Beachbody Brazil Butt Lift

For quick and effective workouts, you’re better off focusing on the larger muscle groups like the chest, back, glutes, quads, hamstrings, abs, and shoulders. For this workout, there is a total of 4 moves: Beginners can start with 1 set of each move; intermediate, 2–3 sets; advanced, do 4 or more sets.
Walking Pushup: Bend over at the waist, keeping a flat back, until your hands touch floor. Walk hands out to a push-up position and perform 1 pushup, then walk hands back and return to standing. Each time increase number of pushups done by 1. Beginners, go up to 3–4 reps, intermediate/ advanced, 5–6 reps. After your sixth rep, perform 10 pushups.
Squat: Beginners, do this exercise 12 times holding 12 lb. dumbbells; intermediate, 15 times holding 15 lb. dumbbells; advanced, 20 times holding 20 lb. dumbbells.
Bentover Row: Beginners, use one 8–12 lb. weight in each hand and do 12 reps; intermediate, 15 lb. doing 15 reps; advanced, 20 lb. doing 20 reps.
Inverted Tabletop: Lie faceup with knees above hips, feet flexed and positioned slightly higher than knees, hands behind head. Start with double reps: In 1 count, lift head, neck, and shoulders, bringing knees in toward chest. Then lift shoulder blades and tailbone a little higher for 1 more count. Return to start in 2 counts, bringing your head back down to touch the mat. Then do single reps: Perform the move for 1 count up, 1 countdown. Then do short reps: “Pulse” at top of move rather than returning back to the start. Beginner: Do 8 double counts, 8 single counts, 8 shortsIntermediate: Do 12 double counts, 12 single counts, 12 shorts Advanced: Do 16 double counts, 16 single counts, 16 shorts.
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Monday, 22 May 2017

5 Quick but Powerful Reminders for When S**t Hits the Fan!

We all go through rough patches in life, some of us more frequently than others.|
 But whether you believe yourself to be regularly faced with turmoil, or only occasionally, we all know what it’s like when the collection of our current experiences (aka “shit”) hits the proverbial fan.

It’s often in these moments that taming our emotions becomes harder than ever, and where even the tiniest of triggers, like someone cutting you off in traffic, can lead to a tirade filled with curse words and ill wishes for a stranger you will never get to know.
While I wish I could offer a solution that would prevent your life from ever being filled with such challenging circumstances, I can’t, so instead, I present five quick but powerful reminders for when shit hits the fan in your life:

1. This Will Make a Great Chapter in the Book of Your Life

Whether or not you ever plan on documenting and sharing the unique culmination that is your life, we all know that it is moments of hardship that make for the best chapters. They may not be fun to go through at the time, but they are always fun to reflect on and have a knack for perfectly setting the stage for later triumphs.
Think of how many times you’ve already told and retold the story of an experience that at the time was “shitty” to go through. There is a reason that comedians who tell primarily self-deprecating jokes (Louis C.K., Jim Gaffigan) are so popular, so remind yourself that this crappy situation will one day make for a great story.

2. Good Things Come From Tough Situations 

Not only do challenging circumstances often make for a great story in time, they also regularly lead to and/or precede positive experiences. Whether it be a valuable life lesson, an unexpected opportunity, or greater emotional fortitude, we can all think of at least one time in our life (if not many) where a good thing eventually came from a tough situation.
Even if the silver lining is not immediately apparent, focus on getting through the hardship and trust that it will make itself known soon enough.

3. You Always Have Things to Be Grateful For

When shit does hit the fan, it can be incredibly hard to think of anything but the shit and how widespread it now seems to be. But one of the simplest and most powerful tools for overcoming challenging times is to challenge yourself to immediately list off at least 10 things you are grateful for in life.
I don’t care who you are or what your life circumstance is, we all have way more than 10 things to be thankful for in life. Be broad (ex. I am thankful to be alive), be specific (ex. I am thankful for the way my dog greets me excitedly when he first sees me), be anything you need to be to get your gratitude train of thoughts going and to break up the negative ones your mind depends upon to further spread the shit.

4. You Control Your Reactions and How Long They Last

You may not be able to prevent challenging circumstances from entering your life, but you are always in the driver seat of how long you allow yourself to be impacted by them. It is natural, and far healthier, in my opinion, to express rather than suppress emotions when they arise, but you do yourself a disservice when you allow them to linger for longer than they have to.
Just because you were cheated on by your now-ex does not mean that you are forever doomed to be betrayed. So stop telling yourself these lies and start cleaning up the mess rather than sulking in the middle of it.

5. Persistence Pays Off

We’re all human in this world, and hardship is an integral part of the human experience. That means that even those you admire have had their shit hit the fan on several occasions, yet this did not stop them from getting to a point where you and others perceive them as admirable.
Challenging situations may slow down or even temporarily stop your train toward your goals and dreams in life, but only you decide if you are going to let them fully derail you.
Previously published by Thought Catalog at www.thoughtcatalog.com.
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How Regular Exercise May Make Your Body 'Younger'!

How Regular Exercise May Make Your Body 'Younger'
Credit: Dudarev Mikhail/Shutterstock
Getting regular exercise may help slow the aging of your body's cells, a new study finds.
Compared with the people in the study who didn't exercise at all, the highly active people had a "biological age" that was about nine years younger, said study author Larry Tucker, a professor of exercise science at Brigham Young University in Utah.
To reap these benefits of exercise, you'd need to spend 30 to 40 minutes running, five days a week, according to the study.
In the study, Tucker looked at data on more than 5,800 people ages 20 to 84 who had taken part in a health survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey, called National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, is aimed at collecting data on people's lifestyle, health, physical activity and nutrition. 
In addition to filling out questionnaires, the people who had participated in the survey had samples of their DNA collected by CDC investigators between 1999 and 2002.
The purpose of this DNA collection was to measure the lengths of people's telomeres, which are molecular "caps" found on the ends of chromosomes that protect the genetic structures from damage. Telomeres get shorter over time, but the rates of this shortening vary from person to person. Therefore, telomeres are considered a marker of a person's "biological age," which refers to the age of that person's cells rather than his or her chronological age.
Although the CDC survey had data on both physical activity levels and telomere length, the relationship between the two had not been analyzed.
In the study, Tucker looked into this relationship, and found that the people who had high physical activity levels had significantly longer telomeres than the people who did not exercise at all and the people who exercised less frequently and less intensely.
In particular, the men in the study who exercised at the intensity and duration equivalent to 40 minutes of running five days a week, and the women who exercised at the equivalent of 30 minutes of running five days a week, had telomeres whose length suggested their cells were nine years younger than the cells of the people who did not exercise at all.
Tucker also compared the telomere length of the people in the highly active group with the telomere length of the people who also exercised but at lower levels. In this case, he found that the difference in cellular aging between the two groups was seven years. 
This finding suggests that "for telomeres, taking it to the next level of activity seems important," Tucker told Live Science.
In other words, "If you want to see a real difference in slowing your biological aging, it appears that a little exercise won't cut it,” Tucker said in a statement. "You have to work out regularly at high levels."
It is not clear why being highly active is linked to having longer telomeres, but previous research has shown that exercise may help reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which have been implicated in the more rapid shortening of telomeres, Tucker said.
previous study found that professional athletes had higher levels of activation of an enzyme called telomerase, which stabilizes telomeres, compared with people who didn't exercise.
Originally published on Live Science.
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2 Drugs That Could Halt The Progression Of ALL Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people each year in the US alone. 5.3 million people are diagnosed every year with Alzheimer’s, which is just one of the long list of diseases that cause neurodegeneration. (1) Research is constantly being done to better understand these diseases, looking for medications and treatments, and how to prevent them entirely.|

So far, we have not been able to find a sure-fire cure for neurodegenerative diseases, until now. Scientists have found that perhaps the cure for neurodegenerative diseases isn’t in developing new drugs, but repurposing old ones.

What are Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Neurodegenerative diseases are a range of conditions that affect the neurons of the brain and the brain cells. When your brain cells become infected with a virus, the virus causes the cell to produce viral proteins for the pathogen, which build up in the cell. To fight this, the brain cell reacts by stopping all protein production in the infected cell or cells. When this becomes prolonged, the cells starve themselves and die, causing neurodegeneration. (1, 2, 3, 4)
The issue here is that brain cells cannot reproduce or repair themselves, so once they die, that cell is gone forever and won’t be replaced by a healthy, working cell.

Types of Neurodegenerative Diseases

There are two main types of Neurodegenerative diseases (2, 6,7):
  1. Ataxias: Cause problems with movement (Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease) (2, 6)
  2. Dementias: Cause problems with mental functioning. (Alzheimer’s Disease, Lewy Body Dementia) (2, 7)
Many ataxia’s and dementia’s overlap, for example Parkinson’s is considered both a dementia and an ataxia.

2 Potential Dementia Medications

The key to reversing and treating diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Dementia is to prevent brain cells from overreacting to pathogens and shutting down protein production in the cells. (3, 5)
In 2013, researchers discovered a compound that could do just that. Unfortunately, while this compound prevented brain cells from dying, it simultaneously damaged the pancreas. (3, 5)
Instead of trying to develop a new drug, these scientists began screening over 1000 drugs that already exist and are used for other conditions.  Through this research they came across two that seemed to work:
  1. Trazodone: Used to treat clinical depression (3, 5)
  2. DBM (Dibenzoylmethane): Found in small amounts in liquorice, currently in clinical trials for treating cancer. (3, 5)
Not only do these two compounds work in the same way at preventing brain cell death in mice, but they had no effect on the pancreas. After taking these drugs, the mice began performing better on memory tests, and researchers have moved on to testing these compounds for treating dementia in humans. (3, 5)
While these drugs may not be a cure, they certainly have the power to slow down the progression of these devastating diseases, change and improve the way we treat those suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. (3, 5)

Prevention is Key: How to Prevent Neurodegenerative Diseases

Of course, the best way to avoid needing drugs or risking potential side effects from conventional medicine is to prevent these diseases before they happen. There are plenty of lifestyle factors to be considered that will help prevent Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases.

3 Tips to Prevent Dementia and Neurodegenerative Diseases Naturally

1. Exercise and Physical Activity

Among the many benefits of exercise and physical activity are the positive effects they have one the health of our brains. When we exercise, we increase the number of small blood vessels that deliver blood to our brains and we increase the number of brain-nerve connections. Essentially, physical activity stimulates our brains to take care of our old connections and create new ones, keeping this vital organ young and healthy. (8)
Even just thirty to forty minutes a day of light aerobic or non-aerobic exercise can have a tremendous impact on the health of your brain. (8) Incorporating exercise into your day doesn’t have to be complicated or arduous. Try one of these simple routines to get moving.

2. Eat a Healthy Diet

Turns out “brain food” is a real thing! Diets high in vegetables, fruits, whole, unprocessed grains, and healthy fats (especially omega-3 fatty acids) all promote brain health. What isn’t in your diet is just as important as what is: Avoid refined sugars, salt, and processed chemical-filled foods. (8)
Consider following the principles of the Mediterranean diet for more healthy-eating guidelines.

3. Stay Social and Keep Your Brain Active

Though it is still unclear as to how it works, researchers have found that the more socially active you are, the healthier your brain will be. Elderly people who live with someone else, attend more social functions, continue to work or volunteer, have healthier brains. (8)
Other activities, such as reading, going to lectures, playing games, and listening to and playing music also help to keep the brain active and healthy. (8)
While natural medicine is preferred and it is better to prevent neurodegenerative diseases instead of trying to cure them, these findings are exciting and are one step closer to saving the minds and lives of millions of people worldwide. We will continue to monitor the progress of these drugs to keep you as up-to-date as possible on their efficacy and if any side effects arise.
This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and is for information only. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions about your medical condition and/or current medication. Do not disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking advice or treatment because of something you have read here.
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Sunday, 21 May 2017

GMO's can change your DNA?

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Saturday, 20 May 2017

Superhot 'Dragon's Breath' Chili Pepper Can Kill. Here's How!

Superhot 'Dragon's Breath' Chili Pepper Can Kill. Here's How
The new hottest chili pepper in town packs a spicy and potentially deadly wallop.
Credit: Mirrorpix/Newscom via Zuma
Death by chili pepper may not be a common way to die, but it's certainly a possibility for unlucky souls adventurous enough to try Dragon's Breath, the new hottest pepper in town.
Mike Smith, the owner of Tom Smith's Plants in the United Kingdom, developed the record-breaking pepper with researchers at the University of Nottingham. He doesn't recommend the pepper for eating, however, because it may be the last thing a person ever tastes.
So how exactly do hot peppers, such as Dragon's Breath, maim or kill those who try to eat them? Let's start with the pepper's spicy stats: Dragon's Breath is so spicy, it clocks in at 2.48 million heat units on the Scoville scale, a measurement of concentration of capsaicin, the chemical that releases that spicy-heat sensation people feel when they bite into a chili pepper. Dragon's Breath is hotter than the current record-holder, the Carolina Reaper, which packs an average of 1.6 million Scoville heat units, as well as U.S. military pepper sprays, which hit about 2 million on the Scoville scale, according to the Daily Post.
In comparison, the habanero pepper is downright mild at about 350,000 Scoville heat units, as is the jalapeƱo pepper, which registers at up to 8,000 heat units, according to PepperScale, a site dedicated to hot peppers. Bell peppers have a recessive gene that stops the production of capsaicin, so they have zero heat units, PepperScale reported.
Dragon's Breath, in contrast, is so potent that it will be kept in a sealed container when it goes on display at the Chelsea Flower Show from May 23 to 27 in London, the Daily Post reported.
"I've tried it on the tip of my tongue, and it just burned and burned," Smith told the Daily Post. "I spat it out in about 10 seconds."
The Carolina Reaper was the previous record holder for hottest pepper.
The Carolina Reaper was the previous record holder for hottest pepper.
Credit: julie deshaies/Shutterstock
When a daredevil, such as Smith, eats an exceptionally spicy pepper, the first sensation is usually mouth numbness, according to Paul Bosland, professor of horticulture at New Mexico State University and director of the Chile Pepper Institute.
"What's happening is that your receptors in your mouth are sending a signal to your brain that there's pain, and it's in the form of hotness or heat, and so your brain produces endorphins to block that pain," Bosland told Live Science previously.
However, unusually hot peppers go beyond numbing the mouth. When these extreme examples are eaten, the body inflates liquid-filled "balloons," or blisters, in areas exposed to the concentrated capsaicin, including the mouth and (if swallowed) the throat, Bosland said. These blisters can help absorb the capsaicin's heat.
"The body is sensing a burn, and it's sacrificing the top layer of cells to say, 'OK, they're going to die now to prevent letting the heat get farther into the body,'" Bosland said.
Some peppers, such as Dragon's Breath, are so hot, that blistering alone would not contain the heat. Rather, their capsaicin permeates the blisters and continues to activate receptors on the nerve endings underneath them, which can lead to a painful burning sensation lasting at least 20 minutes, Bosland said.
In some cases, people vomit up the pepper, as did one 47-year-old man in California who ate a burger topped with ghost pepper puree, according to a 2016 case report in the Journal of Emergency Medicine. The man vomited so violently, he ruptured his esophagus and needed medical attention, Live Science reported.
The immune system can go into overdrive if the capsaicin is too concentrated. That's because TRPV1 receptors — proteins on nerve endings that detect heat — are activated by capsaicin, and erroneously interpret capsaicin as a signal of extreme heat, Live Science reported previously. This mistake can send the body's burn defenses through the roof. In some cases, eating a hot pepper can lead to anaphylactic shock, severe burns and even the closing of a person's airways, which can be deadly if left untreated, according to the Post.
However, Smith didn't intend for Dragon's Breath to be part of a meal. Instead, he grew it so that it could be used as a topical numbing anesthetic for people who are allergic to regular anesthetic.
Original article on Live Science.
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