Scientific study - health promoting potential of mangoes!
Orlando, FL (September 6, 2017) - Research continually unveils new insights about mangos and their role in the diet for health. According to a comprehensive review of the available scientific literature published in the May issue of Food & Function, mangos and their individual components have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, which may help to reduce the risk for chronic disease.1 In addition to being associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality, research suggests eating mangos may be important for glycemic control, the microbiome, as well as vascular, brain, skin, and intestinal health.
Mangos contribute a number of valuable nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin A, and fiber for only 100 calories per one cup serving. Mangos are also a source of phytochemicals - including phenolic acids, mangiferin, carotenoids, and gallotannins - which are associated with a number of health promoting activities including anti-inflammation, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer. 2
"Not only are mangos one of the popular fruits in the world, they contain a variety of essential nutrients and distinctive bioactive components that may play a role in supporting key metabolic functions including anti-inflammatory activity," says Britt M. Burton-Freeman, PhD, MS of the Center for Nutrition Research, Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology, and lead author of the paper.
OBESITY AND DIABETES
Over the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased sharply; diet plays a critical role in reducing the risk of both outcomes. Seven human trials, in which mango fruit or puree was fed to individuals, have measured obesity or diabetes endpoints; five studies looked at people with type 2 diabetes and two studies looked at people who were obese or generally healthy. 3-9 Collectively, research suggests that mango consumption may modulate glucose response in people with diabetes mellitus. Less well understood is the impact of mango consumption on those at risk for diabetes, and further research is warranted.
Although the effects in humans are not known, in animal studies, mango supplementation was observed to reduce important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, such as total cholesterol (TC), TC to high-density cholesterol (HDL) ratio, triglycerides (TG), and glucose concentrations. 10-11 In addition, in one study, daily intake of mango favorably modulated the gut bacteria of animals in favor of Bifidobacteria and Akkermansia, bacteria that have been associated with reduced obesity and improved metabolic outcomes. 12-13 While animal studies report mangos may support glycemic control, further research, particularly in well-characterized human populations with pre-diabetes, will be important for revealing the health value of mangos in diabetes control.
Obesity and diabetes contribute to cardiovascular disease, which accounts for 17.5 million deaths per year, or 31% of all deaths globally. Mango phytochemicals and other components, such as fiber and organic acids, may play a role in cardiovascular health. While no human data are currently available and the effect in humans is not known, animal studies suggest that compounds in mango may play a role in supporting normal TC, the TC to HDL ratio, TG, and blood flow. 14
EMERGING AREAS OF MANGO HEALTH BENEFITS
Collectively, data from animal studies suggest that compounds in mangos may support brain health, given the potential neuroprotective activities of mango's components, including mangiferin and gallotannin, and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. While no human data are currently available on the topic, an in vitro study showed that mango extracts inhibited amyloid beta peptide-induced mitochondrial toxicity in rat brain cells; mitochondrial toxicity may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). 15 Although the effects in humans are not known, animal studies suggest that mango intake may improve memory based on improvements in cognitive performance in models of cognitive impairment. 16 Further research is necessary, particularly in humans.
Mangos contain compounds with antioxidant properties ideal for protecting components of the skin, including collagen. While evidence is very limited and few studies have been published on mangos and skin health, the data available are promising and warrant more research attention. 17
The findings from recent studies in cells and animals provide insight into the potential impact mangos may have on maintaining intestinal health. Although the data is limited, previous animal studies have suggested that individual components (i.e. gallic acid, mangiferin) found in mangos may play a role in intestinal health, or reducing the expression of intestinal inflammation, or inflammatory bowel disease as seen in ulcerative colitis. 18-19
About National Mango Board
The National Mango Board is an agriculture promotion group, supported by assessments from both domestic and imported mangos. The board was designed to drive awareness and consumption of fresh mangos in the U.S. The super-fruit mango contains 100 calories, an excellent source of vitamins A and C, a good source of fiber and an amazing source of tropical flavor. Learn more at http://www.mango.org.
1. B. Burton-Freeman, A. Sandhu, I. Edirisinghe. Mangos and their bioactive components: adding variety to the fruit plate for health. Food & Function. 2017.
2. M. Masibo and Q. He, Major Mango Polyphenols and Their Potential Significance to Human Health, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. , 2008, 7, 309-319.
3. Z. Contractor, F. Hussain and A. Jabbar, Postprandial glucose response to mango, banana and sapota, J. Pak. Med. Assoc., 1999, 49, 215-216.
4. E. Edo, A. Eregie, O. S. Adediran and A. E. Ohwovoriole, Glycaemic response to some commonly eaten fruits in type 2 diabetes mellitus, West Afr. J. Med., 2011, 30, 94-98.
5. L. Elizondo-Montemayor, C. Hernandez-Brenes, P. A. Ramos-Parra, D. Moreno-Sanchez, B. Nieblas, A. M. Rosas-Perez and A. C. Lamadrid-Zertuche, High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects, Food Funct., 2015, 6, 1352-1360.
6. S. F. Evans, M. Meister, M. Mahmood, H. Eldoumi, S. Peterson, P. Perkins-Veazie, S. L. Clarke, M. Payton, B. J. Smith and E. A. Lucas, Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals, Nutr. Metab. Insights, 2014, 7, 77-84.
7. K. Fatema, L. Ali, M. H. Rahman, S. Parvin and Z. Hassan, Serum glucose and insulin response to mango and papaya in type 2 diabetic subjects, Nutr. Res., 2003, 23, 9-14.
8. M. T. Guevarra and L. N. Panlasigui, Blood glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II patients to some local fruits, Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 2000, 9, 303-308.
9. C. Roongpisuthipong, S. Banphotkasem, S. Komindr and V. Tanphaichitr, Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to various tropical fruits of equivalent carbo- hydrate content in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 1991, 14, 123-131.
10. D.I Gomes Natal, M.E. de Castro Moreira, M. Soares Miliiao, L. Do Anjos Benjamin, M.I. de Souza Dantas, S. Machado Rocha Ribeiro and H. Stampini Duarte Martino. Uba mango juices intake decreases adiposity and inflammation in a high-fat diet-induced obese Wistar rats. Nutrition. 2016, 32, 1011-1018.
11. E.A. Lucas, W. Li, S.K. Peterson, A. Brown, S Kuvibidila, P. Perkins-Veazie, S. L. Clarke and B.J. Smith, Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011. 106, 1495-1505.
12. B. Ojo, G.D. El-Rassi, M.E. Payton, P. Perkins-Veazie and S. Clarke. Mango Supplementation Modulates Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production Independent of Body Weight Reduction in C57BL/6 Mid Fed a High-Fat Diet. Journal of Nutrition. 2016. 146, 1483-1491.
13. F.F Anhe, G. Pilon D. Roy, Y. Desjardins, E. Levy and A. Marrette. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome? Gut Microbes. 2016. 7, 146-153.
14. Gerstgrasser, S. Rochter, D. Dressler, C. Schon, C. Reule, and S. Buchwald-Werner. In Vitro Activation of eNOS by Mangifera indica (Careless) and Determination of an Effective Dosage in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Human Pilot Study on Microcirculation. Planta Medica. 2016. 82 298-304.
15. Salimi, A. Ayatollahi, E. Seydi, N. Khomeisi and J. Pourahmad. Direct toxicity of amyloid beta peptide on rat brain mitochondria: preventative role of Mangifera indica and Juglans regia. Toxicology & Environmental Chemistry. 2015. 97, 1057-1070.
16. S. Kumar, K. K. Maheshwari and V. Singh. Effects of Mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2009. 563-566.
17. J.H. Song, E.Y. Bae, G. Choi, J.W. Hyuan, M.Y. Lee, H.W. Lee and S. Chae. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 2013. 29, 100-115.
18. H. Kim, N. Banerjee, I. Ivanov, C. M. Pfent, K. R. Prudhomme, W. H. Bisson, R. H. Dashwood, S. T. Talcott and S. U. Mertens-Talcott, Comparison of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in a pre- clinical model of colitis. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2016, 60, 1912-1923.
19. H. Kim, N. Banerjee, R. C. Barnes, C. M. Pfent, S. T. Talcott, R. H. Dashwood and S. U. Mertens- Talcott, Mango polyphenolics reduce inflammation in intestinal colitis-involvement of the miR-126/PI3 K/AKT/ mTOR axis in vitro and in vivo. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2017. 56, 197-207.